Porosity/Inclusion Analysis


Discover what’s below the surface of your scanned parts. The porosity/inclusion analysis features in Volume Graphics software enable you to detect, characterize, and visualize porosity and inclusions in three dimensions using non-destructive testing (NDT).

Porosity/Inclusion Analysis Features

Locate pores, holes, and inclusions within parts and get detailed information on these discontinuities: 

  • Detect, characterize, and visualize porosity in 2D and 3D using computed tomography.
  • Distinguish between gas pores, shrinkage cavities, cracks, and inclusions of foreign material.
  • Take wall thickness analyses and subsequent machining steps into account.
  • Automatically quantify the surface size of discontinuities in 2D CT slice images in accordance to BDG Reference Sheet P 201/P 202. (Extended Porosity/Inclusion Analysis Module)
  • Perform a 3D evaluation with regard to the most critical porosity parameters within functional areas of the part in accordance to BDG Reference Sheet P 203. (Extended Porosity/Inclusion Analysis Module)
  • Get results for later use in subsequent simulations.
  • Use data in statistical evaluation software such as Q-DAS qs-STAT.

Sphericity (Source: BDG – P 203 / www.bdguss.de)

Distance to next pore (Source: BDG – P 203 / www.bdguss.de)

Sphericity plotted against equivalent diameter

Dependencies between Porosity Parameters

In addition to the calculation and tolerancing of porosity parameters, you can easily display dependencies between porosity variables using suitable graphical representation in y-x plots. For example, a plot of the sphericity against the equivalent diameter may show that the larger pores are shrinkage holes, which can be identified by their lower sphericity.


The distribution of the values of a corresponding parameter can be displayed using histograms. The following example shows that the majority of discontinuities are characterized by a small relative diameter. Those with a relative diameter close to one will be considered critical, since the spatial extent and the minimum wall thickness in the area of the pore are in the same order of magnitude.

Histogram for relative diameter 

Local porosity (top)  and local porosity in a volume mesh (bottom)

Local Porosity Calculation

Since not only single discontinuities are crucial for component stability, Volume Graphics software also offers the opportunity to investigate porosity accumulations and their effects in more detail.

Besides calculating local porosity and local concentrations, it is also possible to map porosity in cells of volume meshes. Regular meshes can be used as well as volume meshes adapted to the CAD or the real surface.

More about volume meshing features >

Practically Relevant Results


Porosity analyses can be applied to user defined Regions of Interest (ROIs) of the part with tolerancing criteria specific to the region
Machining tolerances can be included in the analysis as a parameter for the absolute distance to surface
Discontinuities can be linked with wall thicknesses

Conforming to Standards

The Extended Porosity/Inclusion Analysis Module supports three of the most important guidelines for porosity analysis in order to make evaluations for cast parts easily understandable and reproducible: BDG Reference Sheets P 201, P 202, and P 203.

Application examples for reference areas: section plane of a casting with reference areas and measuring fields/partial areas for quantitative porosity evaluation. (Source: BDG – P 202 / www.bdguss.de)

Pore length (= maximum Ferret) or analogy diameter [ØL] (Source: BDG – P 202 / www.bdguss.de)

P 202 Analysis

Volume Graphics software integrates important specifications according to BDG Reference Sheet P 203
Supported are the definition of the volume for the pore assessment and three-dimensional characteristics of internal volume deficits according to BDG - P 203

Workflows and Interfaces

Discontinuities can be colored according to a selected parameter
Images can also show all porosity parameters directly in the image by means of analysis markers, in addition to the position in the component

Manual and automatic image generation:

  • Volume Graphics software offers various options to generate images of regions and discontinuities.
  • If desired, these images can also show all porosity parameters directly in the image by means of analysis markers in addition to the position in the part.
  • Standard views, such as orthographic views of the casting with detected pores, can provide a clear overview of a part.
  • Rule-based image generation allows you to automatically get images in certain scenarios, such as when tolerance values are exceeded.
Manual re-evaluation of fully automatically inspected components in VGinLINE APPROVER

Inclusion Analysis

Inclusion analysis

Detect particles within your part. The analysis of discontinuities can refer to the absence of material—the classic pore/voids analysis—as well as the presence of foreign particles.

With Volume Graphics software, you can detect unwanted contamination, such as in cases of machine wear, or explore the intended accumulation of added functional particles, such as metal flakes inside an insulator. All parameters that have been mentioned for porosity can also be determined for inclusions.