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Discover what’s below the surface of your scanned parts. The porosity/inclusion analysis features in Volume Graphics software enable you to detect, characterize, and visualize porosity and inclusions in three dimensions using non-destructive testing (NDT).
Locate pores, holes, and inclusions within parts and get detailed information on these discontinuities:
Determine these global porosity parameters for the entire component:
Determine these parameters for individual pores:
In addition to the calculation and tolerancing of porosity parameters, you can easily display dependencies between porosity variables using suitable graphical representation in y-x plots. For example, a plot of the sphericity against the equivalent diameter may show that the larger pores are shrinkage holes, which can be identified by their lower sphericity.
The distribution of the values of a corresponding parameter can be displayed using histograms. The following example shows that the majority of discontinuities are characterized by a small relative diameter. Those with a relative diameter close to one will be considered critical, since the spatial extent and the minimum wall thickness in the area of the pore are in the same order of magnitude.
Since not only single discontinuities are crucial for component stability, Volume Graphics software also offers the opportunity to investigate porosity accumulations and their effects in more detail.
Besides calculating local porosity and local concentrations, it is also possible to map porosity in cells of volume meshes. Regular meshes can be used as well as volume meshes adapted to the CAD or the real surface.
The results for certain porosity parameters allow you to draw conclusions such as:
Limit analyses to relevant areas:
Shows whether and how pores would be cut during machining:
Perform tolerancing with decision trees:
The Extended Porosity/Inclusion Analysis Module supports three of the most important guidelines for porosity analysis in order to make evaluations for cast parts easily understandable and reproducible: BDG Reference Sheets P 201, P 202, and P 203.
To classify porosity parameters in slice images, VDG Specification P 201 (VW 50097) as well as BDG Reference Sheet P 202 (VW 50093) is used. These analyses provide a digital, fully non-destructive take on the classic micrograph analysis, which was achieved by sawing open the component.
With the analyses according to VDG - P 201 and BDG - P 202, you can tolerance the following parameters in arbitrarily oriented digital component sections by means of a porosity key:
The evaluation is performed both in the entire section and in reference areas (square, rectangle, triangle, circle) set by the user.
The BDG Reference Sheet P 203 not only extends VDG - P 201 and BDG - P 202 to 3D but also puts an additional focus on the specific assessment of functionally relevant part areas by using free-form regions.
Volume Graphics software integrates important specifications according to the BDG Reference Sheet P 203 for the definition of the volume for pore assessment as well as for the definition of three-dimensional characteristics of internal volume deficits. Intuitive input functions make it easy to define porosity specifications based on the porosity key according to BDG - P 203.
Volume Graphics software supports the fully automatic determination of the called "Q factor" as proposed by the BDG Reference Sheet P 203. The Q factor is a simple, user-independent approach for verifying the quality of the gray value volume and documenting the quality of your CT scan data directly in the P 203 analysis.
Volume Graphics software also allows you to perform the porosity analysis according to BDG - P 203 on raw parts with additionally inserted reference surfaces, such as a 3D CAD machined part. This allows you to evaluate the porosity on the to-be-machined surfaces in advance.
You can automatically display the corresponding BDG P 203 porosity key and the analysis results for each analyzed freeform partial volume (ROI) in the 3D window and the 2D windows. This simplifies the evaluation of the porosity analysis as well as the orientation in the examined data set. Quick OK/NOK ("not okay") decisions can be made and documented.
You will also receive the number of NOK ("not okay") pores for selected porosity parameters that are out of tolerance within the global volume and within a freeform partial volume (ROI). This allows you to differentiate between outliers and a systematic production problem, which leads to better process control.
Furthermore, the porosity key according to BDG - P 203 can also be used to exclude discontinuities from the evaluation due to their porosity parameters, such as gas pores and micro-cavities with a maximum diameter of, for example, 0.6 mm.
Unlock the real value of your results with the comprehensive yet easy-to-use visualization features.
Navigation in individual parts and series of parts:
Manual and automatic image generation:
With Volume Graphics software, you can partially or fully automate manual workflows with just a few simple clicks. This not only saves you time in your daily work but also gives you the option of exporting your automated workflow to VGinLINE for use in an at-line or in-line CT environment.
Porosity analyses in particular offer a consistently high level of detectability, even in serial inspection, by taking production-related variations into account.
Modern reporting, statistical evaluations (Q-DAS), and a platform for manual re-evaluation of fully automatically inspected components (VGinLINE APPROVER) allow you to master the challenges of tomorrow's non-destructive testing today.
Comprehensive reporting features allow you to share your results with different audiences, even if they're not using Volume Graphics software.
The reporting features in Volume Graphics software allow you to:
Use the results of a porosity analysis in subsequent simulations to further investigate the effect of the defect.
The simulation features in Volume Graphics software connect porosity/inclusion analysis to the simulation world:
Detect particles within your part. The analysis of discontinuities can refer to the absence of material—the classic pore/voids analysis—as well as the presence of foreign particles.
With Volume Graphics software, you can detect unwanted contamination, such as in cases of machine wear, or explore the intended accumulation of added functional particles, such as metal flakes inside an insulator. All parameters that have been mentioned for porosity can also be determined for inclusions.